history of the floor plan by Claire Grotz

One of the most gratifying aspects of our job is to customize spaces for our clients, the most intimate being those in the home.  The first thing we ask a client to do when we set out to create a home for them is to fill out a questionnaire. It is designed to structure the get to know you process, and our goal in writing it is to understand how our clients live in the spaces they have, and more importantly, how they want to live in the spaces we have been hired to create. We encourage our clients to take some time with it, because it goes beyond the quantitative questions such as number of bedrooms, or desired square footage frequently used to define scope, and asks more qualitative questions to really understand how those spaces or that square footage will be used (who cooks? Where do you eat? how frequently to do you host overnight guests?) Because while two clients might each respond that they need three bedrooms, or a large kitchen – the way they envision using those spaces, and therefore the way we approach their design, is unique to them.

When we finish the questionnaire phase we have a list of spaces that will be important in the home, as well as a sense of the way those spaces relate to each other for our client. The list is made up of basics: cooking space, living space, bathing space and sleeping space, as well as “extras” such as outdoor space, formal dining space, work space, storage space, play space, media space etc. And most of the time these functions fit into rooms with familiar names and descriptions – cooking space is in the kitchen, sleeping space is divided in to a number of bedrooms, etc. But the compartmentalization of home life into these rooms is actually very recent, and specific to our time and place. Each of these rooms has a rich and ever evolving history –while we have always needed a place to sleep, or eat, the way that we do those things is ever changing and therefore the spaces dedicated to them change as well.  Bill Brysons “At Home” and Lucy Worsley’s “If Walls Could Talk” are a great introduction to the history of life in rooms. Many room names are quite old but have completely different functions than the space originally defined by that name, such as the kitchen or hall- others have virtually disappeared such as the parlor, or scullery- and some, like a media room or master bathroom are very new.

The original room was the “hall” which we now only include where necessary for circulation, and often don’t even consider as a room of its own right. But until as recently as the 15th century the hall was the most important, (and at first, the only!) room in the house. The word “hall” is 1600 years old, when it referred to a large barn like structure that functioned as kitchen, bedroom, dressing room, living room, (and barn!) in one- the original open floor plan.  The room was therefore designed to afford complete flexibility- the only fixed feature would have been a centrally located hearth for cooking, light, and warmth. Furniture would have been kept to a minimum, with shared bedding laid out only at night and put away during the day (a typical bed size for a family might have been 9’x7’). An early dining table would have actually been a board, hung on the wall when not in use (also the origin of the term “room and board”). The concept of privacy in the early home was therefore nonexistent- rather, all life was carried out communally.

With time other rooms were added, such as the chapel, kitchen and sleeping chambers. The addition of new rooms was made possible by the invention of the chimney in the 1300s which funneled smoke out of the house, for the first time allowing the space above head height to be breathable and therefore occupiable. The first room to move upstairs was the bedroom, in the form of the ”great chamber” which was the first private space for the family, separate from guests or servants. The first bedrooms would have been shared by the nuclear family, often in one bed. They were used not just for sleeping but also for entertaining or eating in a more intimate setting. The bedroom didn’t become a dedicated room just for sleeping until the 1600s. Even then, it wasn’t yet considered a private space, evidenced by the fact that most bedrooms were accessed from each other rather than a corridor. The desire for privacy from other household members wasn’t adopted until later- As literacy rates increased, people began to enjoy and value time spent alone. Interestingly, the first space designed for privacy was not the bedroom or bathroom, but the closet. The original use of the word “closet” referred to a small room off of the bed chamber more similar to a study than a storage space, where the occupant might pray or meditate and where the owner might store small collectibles or art- also one of the first spaces to feature an interior lock. And while todays closets are generally utilitarian, the original “closets” would have had some of the most personalized decor.


The chimney was equally impactful in creating a separate kitchen – and whereas early censuses actually counted the number of hearths rather than people or houses, once the hearth was no longer required to be in the center of the home as a heat source it was quickly moved to a less prominent part of the home and many times actually stood as a structure separate from the home. Cooking was done over a fire, while baking was typically done outside the home in a communal oven. The kitchen stayed a hidden and undecorated space in middle and upper class homes until after the early 20th century when household sizes decreased, and therefore cooking was done by the “mistress of the house” for her own family rather than by employed staff. Different from today’s multifunction and often quite expensively finished kitchens, a kitchen in a 1920s home would have been for cooking only- dining, dish storage, entertaining, would have been in separate rooms. And a mid nineteenth century kitchen would not have even had a sink – the cleaning and cooking functions were considered separate, and the cleaning would have been done in a separate room called the scullery. 
kitchen at mount vernon, 1860
1939 model kitchen 

1911 catalog kitchen


Baths date back to the Roman Empire, but in a very different form than we bathe today. Almost more important than their hygienic function, Roman baths were opportunities for socializing, carried out outside the home, and very much in public. With the rise of Christianity people adopted a more modest approach to bathing, but the labor involved in carrying water, let alone heating it, for a private bath was so great that most people actually bathed very infrequently. The bathroom as a dedicated and private space within the home is only as old as plumbing – previously bathing would have taken place using portable pitchers and basins carried into the bedroom. The “en suite” bathroom actually began in hotels, the first being Cape May, New Jersey’s Mount Vernon Hotel in 1853. It was slower to catch on in private homes because they frequently lacked the pressure to bring the water upstairs (London’s first pipes were actually made of wood, later replaced with iron). The first private bathrooms were utilitarian, more akin to mechanical rooms than today’s often spa-like master bathrooms, and had to be tucked into existing spaces wherever they could fit. As a result the sizes of bathrooms, and their fixtures, were far from standard (Bryson cites a bathtub so big a stepladder was needed to get into it, and a shower large enough for a horse). Porcelain enamel tubs were the first to be considered attractive – prior versions might have been made of zinc, copper or cast iron. By 1940 fixtures had become more or less standardized, and affordable - an entire bath suite (sink bath and toilet) could be purchased for $70.

While all rooms are really living rooms, “living rooms” in the sense of the word today were the creation of leisure time, and in America the term was only coined around the mid-19th century. Predecessors to the living room, such as the parlor date all the way back to 1225 where it was used to describe a room where monks could go to talk (derived from the French word “parler”) but were only seen in homes for the wealthy. A new urban middle class emerging in the 17th century was the first time that anyone but the wealthy had time for leisure, and need of an impressive space to host guests. Dedicated dining rooms only came about in the mid-18th century as a result of the widespread adoption of upholstered furniture, as a way of preventing stains from eating.

As technology makes domestic life easier, and careers and school tend to keep people away from home during the day, homes are increasingly our centers for privacy, leisure, and relaxation.  Average household size in the west has gone from 5.8 members in 1790 to 2.6 in America today, making it possible and desirable to create more private spaces for individual retreat within the home, as well as social spaces geared more toward relaxation and entertaining. But of course the floor plan will continue to evolve, and the popularity of the tiny house movement, an appreciation for minimalism and open plans, and renewed interest in sustainability suggest that maybe we still have something to learn from the original room, the “hall”.
1799 duplex
1925 house plan
1910 apartment plan
Sources:
Bill Bryson “At Home”
Lucy Worsley “If Walls Could Talk”
NYPL Digital Library 

Northwest Design Awards by Atelier Drome

Esteemed judges deemed our project "Bramling Cross" the winner of the 17th annual Northwest Design Awards Hospitality category at their gala last night.  

In the historic neighborhood of Ballard, evidence of the old fishing town still shows between the new housing, shopping, and restaurants like Bramling Cross. With a local chef as the client, the desire was to create the perfect gastropub to celebrate his work alongside an extensive selection of local beer. This long and narrow space came with a number of challenges, including a very unique ceiling structure that spans between the walls of the two neighboring buildings. While adding new skylights to brighten the space, new structural posts were added along both masonry walls to create a rhythm for a series of two and four seat booths punctuated by display units and brass light fixtures. The generous bar and service counter are all Claro Walnut, the highlight of the space, which ties into the warmth of the brick. With a combination of traditional and modern details against the rough texture of the masonry walls and exposed structure above, Bramling Cross is designed to embrace the rich character of the neighborhood. 

We are so excited about this recognition and are looking forwards to future accomplishments! #ateliYAY  

mood board monday: wallingford residence by Claire Grotz


Owners of the Wallingford home are looking to make their current residence more usable according to their daily needs. They are attracted to wallpaper and statement pieces in what would otherwise be a very simple, traditional room.  The rooms will be used as an informal private retreat with smart storage solutions to keep their space organized and functional. Happy Mood Board Monday!

february's featured project: navy strength by Claire Grotz

With Seattle being adjacent to Puget Sound, it is no wonder that the water played an integral part of Seattle's history. Inspired by the maritime background of Seattle, owner of the soon to be Navy Strength wanted to convert a 2,422 square foot retail space into a Tiki bar. We were more than happy to help with the process. This space is located right next to No Anchor restaurant in the neighborhood of Belltown. With just a few more finishing touches to be made, Navy Strength should be open in no time!




pacific northwest contemporary home construction by Claire Grotz

In Phinney Ridge, we can see our Pacific Northwest contemporary home slowly coming to life. The project is currently in the construction phase and each month the house inches closer to completion with help from STS Construction. With a 9 month completion target, the Pacific Northwest contemporary home will be finished in August 2017!

December

January

February


ghent market hall by Claire Grotz

At Atelier Drome, we love a great public space. Today, we’re sharing one of our designer's favorite public spaces with you.

A newly built Market Hall in the town center has become an exceptional cornerstone of public life for the city of Ghent, Belgium. In the 1300s, Ghent was a bustling port city and one of the largest hubs in Europe. Today the city is still marked by incredible architecture of the late Middle Ages. In response to a 2006 design competition, architects Robbrecht & Daem and Marie-José Van Hee came up with a design to help reinvigorate the town center and pay homage to its long history. Amidst the Gothic architecture of St. Nicholas’ Church and the Belfry, the Market Hall of Ghent gives compliment to the historic towers and local vernacular while holding true to its own place in time. Physically, the structure is no more than a canopy, yet it’s existence fills the void between the past and future, and acts as both a backdrop and center point for a beloved public space. The Market Hall’s delicate glass shingles are noteworthy, which reflect the sky and bring a certainly lightness to an otherwise monumental structure. Underfoot, a small café and bicycle parking garage also help complete the plaza.


If you’re ever in the area, Ghent is certainly worth a visit. Check out the photos below to see how the Market Hall helps support public space, and hop on over to ArchDaily to see more! 

Market Hall & Belfry

Market Hall & St. Nicholas' Church

Market Hall
Market Hall







bellden cafe construction continued by Claire Grotz

It's happening! Decorative tiles went in at the Bellden Cafe construction site in Bellevue to bring together the bright shop. The cafe is inspired by European design marked by minimalism, simplicity, and functionality. With coastal colors the cafe will be a unique coffee spot and we can't wait for it to be finished! 








furniture & accessories by Claire Grotz



At Atelier Drome, we are design curators - with  knowledge of and access to both current and timeless designs to complete your space. Our interior design services strive to refine and compliment your ideal aesthetic. Whatever you need to make your home or commercial space feel truly finished, we can help you find that special item you didn't even know was missing.

bellevue healthcare by Claire Grotz


Bellevue HealthCare, a locally owned and operated medical supplier, has been in business in the Pacific Northwest for over a decade.  So when they approached us to design a new headquarters for them in the heart of Redmond, we were thrilled! Their new home is located in a 13,360sf office building.  Adding new interior partitions, we were able to create multiple open work areas, coupled with playful independent office pods.  Additionally, a generously appointed kitchen and employee lounge were added, as well as updates to the conference room and reception area. Working in tandem with the builder, DLH, many of the existing elements were re-purposed and given new life.  All new finishes were selected and the space is now sporting an edgy, raw aesthetic.  This once cavernous and dull office space is now an upbeat and exciting place to work.

lighting illuminated: 5 key considerations by Claire Grotz

Aesthetically, lighting fixtures can be like jewelry for an interior, adding a bit of sparkle and just the right finishing touch to a space. Functionally, there is a lot more to selecting a fixture than just its dashing good looks. The right (or wrong) lighting selection will make or break a design, regardless of how well the rest of the space has been crafted. Below are five key concepts to understand when selecting the right fixture.

UL listing
The UL, or Underwriters Laboratories, is an independent US company that tests and verifies consumer products to ensure their safety for the public. It is important to select a fixture that has been tested and approved by the UL, especially if it is going in a bathroom it will need to be UL listed for use in damp locations.

Lamping
Lamping refers to the type of bulb (or lamp) used in a fixture. Different types of bulbs have different light outputs, require different amounts of electricity, and have varying lifespans. For example, LED lights have a much longer lifespan (as much as 10-15 years which is great for fixtures in locations that are difficult to service) and they are also a great option for saving on energy costs. Some fixtures can accommodate different types of bulbs, but others cannot. Be sure to check the specifications to see whether the fixture uses a bulb that is readily available in your local store, or whether it is something you will need to special order, as this will impact the ease of maintenance over time.

Lumens
Lumens are the measurement of light output from the lamp, or bulb, as mentioned above. We are accustomed to understanding light output in relation to the watts of an incandescent bulb, but with so many other options (LED, halogen, fluorescent) a little math is needed to determine light output: The total output (lumens) you will get from a fixture is equal to the wattage of the bulb, times the lumens per watt for the bulb type. Therefore, a 60w incandescent that produces about 15 lumens per watt will give off only 900 lumens, whereas a 60w LED that produces 30 lumens per watt will give off 1800 lumens. (Hence the energy savings of switching to LED lights.)

Color Temperature
Color Temperature refers to how visually “warm” the light output appears. It is measured on the Kelvin scale of 1,000K (warmest) up to 10,000K (coolest). This influences the “mood” you want to set. Psychologically, a room filled with “warm” light (2,000K-3,000K) gives a sense of cozy intimacy and is desirable in restaurants or living rooms. A “cool” white light (3,000K-4,500K) tends to make a space feel vibrant and bright, which works well in offices or bathrooms. Daylight falls around 4,600K-6,500K, which feels energizing and crisp and is great for task lighting.


CRI
Finally, the CRI is the Color Rendering Index, measured on a scale of 0-100. Different light bulbs (and hence the fixtures that require them) will vary when it comes to how accurately colors appear under the light. This is separate from Color Temperature, and gets very scientific very fast. To simplify the concept, what is important to note when selecting lighting for spaces where color accuracy is crucial (like a design studio, salon, or your dressing area at home) is that the higher the CRI number, the more accurately you will see color. Daylight has a CRI of about 75 and typically in a living space you will want a CRI of 70 or higher.



As you can tell, the art and science of lighting can be very complex, and we haven’t even touched issues like beam spread or control systems. For large projects or public buildings where lighting plays a critical role it is often desirable to engage a lighting consultant. However, understanding these five key concepts is a great starting point for discussing the basics with your architect or designer, or shopping for fixtures on your own.